Age-Related Macular Degeneration

What is Age-Related Macular Degeneration?


Age-Related Macular Degeneration, often abbreviated as ‘AMD’, is a chronic, irreversible eye condition. AMD damages the retina, resulting in loss of vision in the centre of the visual field. AMD is one of the leading causes of blindness in people 50 years and older.

There are two types of AMD – dry AMD and wet AMD:

Dry AMD: the more common form of AMD. It occurs when light-sensitive cells in the macula (the central area of the retina) gradually break down with age, slowly causing loss of vision.

Wet AMD: is less common than dry AMD – it is estimated that only around 1 out of 5 people with AMD have wet AMD. Furthermore, it usually develops in people who already have dry AMD. Studies have shown that people who smoke are 4 times more likely to develop wet AMD [1].

Wet AMD is caused by growth of blood vessels under the retina in the macula. Because they leak substances such as blood, fluids, lipids and proteins, these small abnormal blood vessels disrupt the normal structure of the retina, form scar tissue, and cause loss of central vision. In the absence of prompt treatment, wet AMD can cause significant vision loss within a short period of time.

What are The Signs & Symptoms Of Age-Related Macular Degenaration?

Gradual Or Total Loss Of Central Vision

Shapes And Lines Appear Crooked

signs and symptoms of Age-Related Macular Degeneration:

Age-Related Macular Degeneration is an eye problem that can develop gradually without causing significant eye pain or eye discomfort. Regular eye checks are an integral part of maintaining good eye health. If you have one or more of these symptoms, you may have Age-Related Macular Degeneration

– Straight lines appearing distorted or wavy (metamorphopsia)
– Increasingly (may be gradual or rapid) blur vision in the central area of vision
– Loss of contrast of vision
– Missing areas or blank spots in vision
– Problems differentiating colours
– After exposure to bright lighting, slow recovery of vision

Dr. Wong Chee Wai

Senior Consultant Eye Surgeon
MBBS (Singapore), M.Med (Ophth), FAMS (Ophth), MCI (Singapore),

Sub-specialties: Retinal Conditions, Cataracts

Languages: English, Mandarin, Cantonese

Fellowship Trained Specialist
Former Consultant at Singapore National Eye Centre (SNEC)
Former Clinical Lead of the High Myopia Clinic at the Singapore National Eye Centre (SNEC)
Started the Surgical Retina Service at Sengkang Hospital
Former Assistant Professor at the Duke-NUS Medical School

  • Dr Wong Chee Wai was awarded 3 gold medals for Best Candidate in Cornea and Refractive, Neuro-ophthalmology and Ethics in the Eye Specialists’ Exit exam
  • Research Training Fellowship Award, National Medical Research Council (2017)
eye doctor, Symptoms of Retinal Tears

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What causes Age-Related Macular Degeneration?

As its name suggests, Age-Related Macular Degeneration is caused by the natural aging of the eye. It is a leading cause of vision loss in people over 50 years old.

The risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration increases with the following:

– Age
– Genetic history of AMD
– Gender (women are more likely to have AMD)
– Cardiovascular Diseases
– Obesity
– Smoking

What are the treatment options for Age-Related Macular Degeneration?

Depending on the type of Age-Related Macular Degeneration, oral medication and surgery are possible treatments. For more details on your recommended treatment option, please consult your eye doctor.

Our Services

Cataract / Glaucoma / Age-Related Macular Degeneration Screening

( Inclusive of Consultation with Doctor )

  • Visual Acuity/Refraction
  • Eye Pressure Check (Tonometry)
  • Corneal Thickness Measurement
  • Optic Nerve & Macular Scan/Optical Coherence Tomography (Nerve & Macular)
  • Optic Nerve & Retinal Photography
  • Doctor’s Consult *

Medisave & Integrated Shield Plans Approved

Dedicated Insurance Support

We understand that navigating the financial aspect of healthcare can be overwhelming. We welcome all patients with or without insurance and can assist with your claims no matter your personal or corporate insurance plan.

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